ESDU AZ Index: AMAZ
 see also
 Atmosphere
 Calculation of Error in Static Pressure, 20006, 20007
 Calculation of Runway Temperature from Ambient Pressure and Ambient Temperature, TM 188
 Measurement in Flight
 Variation With Altitude
 aircraft performance program
 model atmospheres, 68046, 72018, 77021, 77022, 78008
 program to calculate in nonStandard conditions, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
 program to calculate in Standard conditions, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
 see also
 Atmosphere
 Calculation of Runway Temperature from Ambient Pressure and Ambient Temperature, TM 188
 Measurement in Flight
 air properties for derivation from measurements in hypersonic flow, 88025
 approximate treatment of caloric imperfection, 83029
 derivation of true total temperature, 84007
 determination from total temperature in hypersonic flow, 88025
 flight calibration of temperature probe, 84007
 introduction to, 86031
 radiation and recovery errors, 83029, 84007
 real gas effects (excluding dissociation), 88025
 response of probe to changing temperature, 84007
 selfheating error, 83029, 84007
 use of manufacturer's data in probe calibration, 84007
 Variation With Altitude

 see also
 Atmospheric Effects on Sound
 model atmospheres, 68046, 72018, 77021, 77022, 78008
 Variation With Latitude and Season, 78008
 Record of Changes Introduced in Aerodynamics Series, 00001
 Record of Changes Introduced in Aircraft Noise Series, 00010
 Record of Changes Introduced in Fatigue  Endurance Data Series, 04017
 Record of Changes Introduced in Mechanisms Series, 00004
 Record of Changes Introduced in Performance Series, 99035
 Record of Changes Introduced in Structures Series, 00030
 Record of Changes Introduced in Transonic Aerodynamics Series, 99034
 Record of Changes Introduced in Tribology Series, 00005
 Record of Changes Introduced in Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue Series, 00011
 see also
 Heat Pipes
 Density
 pressure and temperature variation for saturated gas and liquid, 80017
 Dynamic Viscosity
 pressure and temperature variation for saturated gas and liquid, 80017
 Specific Heat Capacity
 pressure and temperature variation for saturated liquid, 80017
 Specific Latent Heat of Vaporisation
 pressure and temperature variation at saturation, 80017
 Surface Tension
 pressure and temperature variation at saturation, 80017
 Thermal Conductivity
 pressure and temperature variation for saturated liquid, 80017
 Vapour Pressure
 pressure and temperature variation at saturation, 80017
 Description, 87034
 Analogous Body Concept, 74013
 Analogous Wing Concept (Section 5.1), 73012
 see
 Statistics
 see also
 Ambient Temperature
 Impact Pressure
 Calibration Laws
 airspeed indicator, 86031
 altimeter, 86031
 Machmeter, 86031
 Determination of Airspeed and Mach Number in Hypersonic Flow
 graphs and tables of air properties for use in, 88025
 using inflight measured static pressure, 88025
 using static pressure deduced from ambient temperature and lapse rate, 88025, 93020
 Flowcharts to Ensure Correct Order, 83029
 Guide to Calculation Procedures, 86031
 Introduction to Definitions and Notation, 86031
 Introduction to Method, 83029
 Pitot and Static Pressures
 accurate determination of speeds, Mach number and altitude, 83029, 85036
 approximate determination of speeds, Mach number and altitude, 83029, 85036
 effect of transition from laminar flow on use of ground lag calibration, 87038
 experimental determination of installed system lag, 87038
 incorporation of lag effects, 83029, 87038
 inertia effects, 83029
 Reynolds number effects, 83029
 theoretical treatment of acoustic and viscous lag, 87038
 use in determining airspeed and Mach number in hypersonic flow, 88025
 use in determining ambient and relative temperatures, 83029
 use in determining specific excess power, 83029
 Position (Pressure) Error in Static Pressure Sensing, 83029, 85036, 86006
 determination of dependence on angle of attack and Mach number, 95024
 example of calibration of boommounted sensor in subsonic flight, 95024
 use of windtunnel and flight tests to determine, 95024
 see also
 WindTunnel Corrections for Wings
 Derivation of angle of attack in flight, 17013, TM 190
 Determination of angle of attack
 using accelerometer, 17013, TM 190
 using Energy Height method, 17013
 using INS/GPS method, 17013, TM 185
 Determination of true airspeed at particular angle of attack from GPS measurements, 20007
 For Maximum Lift
 aerofoils with or without leading and/or trailingedge highlift devices deployed, 96003
 program to predict
 wings with or without leading and/or trailingedge highlift devices deployed, 96003
 For Zero Lift
 aerofoils in inviscid subcritical flow, 72024, 98011
 aerofoils in subcritical attached flow, 98011
 cambered and twisted wings, 87031
 cambered and twisted wings with approximately circularsection fuselage, 89042
 program to predict for lowdrag GUNACAseries aerofoils, 99003
 Induced Due to Downwash, 73012
 Inflight calibration of an angle of attack sensor, 17013, TM 185
 Aircraft Dynamics
 Flexural Properties, STRUCT 01.00.01
 Secondary Warping and Torsion Constants, STRUCT 00.07.01
 Flexural Properties, STRUCT 01.00.01
 Pressure Drop Across, 69022
 Linear Systems
 definition, 67038
 see also
 Diffusers
 Geometrical Relationships, 75026
 Methods of Improving Performance, 87015
 Onset of Significant Separation, 75026
 Optimum Geometry for Maximum Pressure Recovery, 75026
 Static Pressure Recovery
 inlet boundary layer effects, 75026
 inlet swirl effects, 76027
 radius ratio effects, 75026
 tailpipe effects, 75026
 turbulence effects, 75026
 wall angle combination effects, 75026, 76027
 Total Pressure Loss
 derivation from static pressure recovery, 75026
 see
 Ejectors
 Normal to Flow
 normal force, 70015
 see also
 DoublePipe Heat Exchangers
 Effect of Systematic Roughnesses
 Forced Convection Heat Transfer
 Noise Attenuation of Subsonic Flow by Duct Liners
 LiftCurve Slope, 77012
 Bond Strength, Deposition Rate, Porosity, and Treatment Temperature, 86040
 Description of Treatments Involved, 87026, 88027
 Effect on Fatigue Strength of Notched or Unnotched Aluminium Specimens
 data for various alloys with various treatments, 87026
 effect of cladding, 87026
 effect of loading direction relative to grain structure, 87026
 effect of oxide layer thickness, 87026
 under constant or variable amplitude axial or bending loading, 87026
 use of chromic or sulphuric acid or hard anodising, 87026
 Effect on Fretting Fatigue of Titanium Alloys, 88027
 Estimation of Speed During, PERF EG6/2
 consideration of margin above stall in turbulence, PERF EG6/2
 Stability During, PERF EG6/2
 Techniques for Dealing With Crosswind, 01010
 see also
 Salt Water
 Sea Water
 Hydrochloric Acid/Methanol
 effect on fatigue crack propagation rate in titanium alloy sheet, 90028
 Sodium Bromide
 effect on fatigue crack propagation rate in titanium alloy sheet, 90028
 Sodium Chloride
 effect on fatigue crack propagation rate in aluminiumlithium plate, 91015
 effect on fatigue crack propagation rate in aluminium plate and sheet, 88007
 effect on fatigue crack propagation rate in titanium and titanium alloy plate and sheet, 90028
 effect on fretting fatigue of titanium and titanium alloy, 88027
 Minimum Transonic Drag Rise
 zero lift, AERO A.02.03.02
 see also
 Moment of Area Rule
 Transonic and Supersonic, AERO A.S.02.03.01
 Discussion of Application for Abandoned TakeOff and Landing, 85029
 Effect on Fouling in Crude Oil Distillation Plant
 see also
 Drag
 Excrescences
 Viscosity of Oils, 68036
 Estimation of Trim Drag Due to Inoperative Engine or Other Source
 approximate method for fan, jet or propellerpowered aircraft, 88006
 equations of motion for equilibrium flight, 88006
 estimation of component contributions to, 88006
 techniques for flight (wings level or banked), 88006
 Steady Level Sideslipping, Turning or With Failed Engine
 calculation of aileron and rudder deflections and their order of magnitude, 01010
 calculation of loading on fin, fuselage, tailplane and wing, 01010
 Kinematic Viscosity
 typical values in liquid state, 71003
 Kinematic Viscosity
 typical values in liquid state, 71003
 Absorption and Scattering of Solar Irradiance, 69015
 Calculation of Runway Temperature from Ambient Pressure and Ambient Temperature, TM 188
 Description and Explanation of Global Wind Circulation, 87034
 Effect of Dust, Ozone and Water Vapour on Solar Irradiance, 69015
 Effect of Various on Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate
 aluminium alloy forgings, plate and sheet, 88007
 aluminiumlithium alloy plate and sheet, 91015
 titanium and titanium alloy plate and sheet, 90028
 Height Relationships in Any, 78012
 Height Relationships in OffStandard and Standard, 77022
 Probabilistic
 explanation of definition, 68046
 Program to Estimate Variation of Properties With Altitude
 aircraft performance program, ESDUperf
 in Standard conditions or nonStandard conditions, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
 Properties for Specific Design Conditions (0 to 20 km, 0 to 65 000 ft)
 Arctic, temperate and tropical extremes, 78008
 Properties of International Interim Standard 50 km to 80 km
 equations for computation and tables of relative values, 77021
 Properties of International Standard  0.5 km to 32 km
 absolute (and relative values) in SI units, heights in feet, 72018
 Properties of International Standard  0.5 km to 50 km
 absolute (and relative values) in British and SI units, 68046
 equations for computation, 77021, 77022
 tables of relative values, 77021
 Properties of OffStandard
 absolute (and relative values) in British units, 68046
 defining equations, 77022
 equations for computation, 77022
 Properties of Standard 80 km to 1 000 km
 tables of relative values, 77021
 Standard or OffStandard
 variation of ratio of static to total pressure behind normal shock in hypersonic flow, 93020
 Standard SeaLevel Properties, 68046, 72018, 77021, 77022
 see also
 Noise
 Discussion of Absorption, Attenuation and Refraction, 02020
 Effect of Turbulence on Ground Reflection Behaviour, 94035, 94036
 Estimation of Attenuation in Propagation Close to Ground, 94036
 Estimation of Attenuation of BroadBand Sound Using Discrete Frequency Data, 78003
 effect of nonuniform still atmosphere, 78003
 effect of real filter characteristics, 78003
 effect of spectrum smoothing, 78003
 graphical method, 78003
 inclusion of discrete tones, 78003
 Estimation of Attenuation of Discrete Frequency Sound
 effects of humidity, pressure and temperature, 78002
 Temperature and/or Wind Gradients Near Ground
 calculation of thirdoctave pressure levels due to, 89036
 Aircraft Dynamics
 definition, 67003, 86021
 relationship to incidence angles, 67037
 use in conversion of accelerations and velocities between axes systems, 98024
 Determination of pitch angle using a longitudinal accelerometer, 17013
 Pitch During Ground Run or Taxiing
 assumption for or calculation of, 87018
 see also
 Steels
 Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate, 84003, 93033

 see also
 Crack Propagation
 characteristic slopes of plots against stress intensity factor, 84003
 effect of alloy composition and heat treatment, 84003
 effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 84003
 Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate (Short Cracks), 93033
 effect of alloy composition, 93033
 effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 93033
 Fatigue Strength at High Endurance, 88008
 relationship with tensile strength for unnotched specimens, 88008
 Fatigue Strength Under Bending, 71027
 effect of notches, 71027
 relationship with tensile strength, 71027
 Threshold Stress Intensity Factor Range, 84003
 see
 Brakes
 Conversion Formulae for a General Rotation Defined by Attitude Angles
 any vector, 67036, 78038, 85030
 Conversion Formulae for a General Rotation Defined by Attitude Angles and Translation
 force and moment vectors, 82031
 Conversion Formulae for Rotation and Translation in a Plane
 aerodynamic derivatives and constants of inertia, 67004, 86041
 angular and linear velocity vectors, 67004, 86041
 force and moment vectors, 67004, 86041
 see also
 Axes System Transformations
 Choice of, 67003
 Definitions, 67036, 78038, 85030, 86021
 Geometric and Kinematic Relationships, 67036, 78038, 79018, 86021
 Transformation Between Earth, Body, AirPath, FlightPath and Other Axes Systems
 any vector, 85030
 Transformation Between Earth, Body and AirPath Axes Systems
 any vector, 67036, 78038
 Use of Euler Attitude Angles or Quaternion Representation of Aircraft Attitude
 in conversion of accelerations and velocities between axes systems, 98024
 Slender Wings, 71006
 SphericallyBlunted Tangent Ogive and Cone Forebodies Due to Pressure Alone
 at low angles of attack and transonic speeds, 89033
 optimum blunting for minimum, 89033
 SurfaceMounted RectangularSection Cylinders
 effect of incidence and section aspect ratio in turbulent shear flow, 80003
 SurfaceMounted SquareSection Cylinders
 effect of incidence in turbulent shear flow, 80003
 effect of incidence in uniform approach flow, 71016
 Swept StraightTapered Plane Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
 viscous contribution to lift dependent drag, 95025
 TwoDimensional CircularSection Cylinders Inclined to Subcritical Flow, 80025
 distributed roughness effects, 80025
 turbulence effects, 80025
 TwoDimensional Stranded Cables Inclined to Subcritical Flow, 80025